When a child who has experienced abuse or neglect has few protective factors such as positive relationships with extended family and friends , the risk of more serious adverse outcomes increases. Factors that contribute to a child's resilience include child attributes e. Critical factors that influence the way child abuse and neglect affects children and young people includethe frequency and duration of maltreatment and the co-occurrence of multiple forms of maltreatment.
Research suggests that maltreatment types are interrelated, that is, a large proportion of children and young people who experience childhood abuse or neglect are exposed to more than one type of abuse known as multi-type maltreatment. In attempting to explain some of the adverse outcomes associated with chronic and multi-type maltreatment a concept that is often employed is complex trauma. Complex trauma reflects the multiple and interacting symptoms, disorders, multiple adverse experiences, and the broad range of cognitive, affective and behavioural outcomes associated with prolonged trauma, particularly if occurring early in life and involving an interpersonal element e.
Psychological Effects of Physical Child Abuse Essay | Bartleby
For further details on chronic maltreatment, the interrelatedness of sub-types of child abuse and neglect, and complex trauma, see Rarely An Isolated Incident: Acknowledging the Interrelatedness of Child Maltreatment, Victimisation and Trauma Price-Robertson et al. Other factors that can affect the consequences of child abuse and neglect on children and adolescents include:. They have noted several key messages:. Child abuse and neglect can affect all domains of development - physical, psychological, emotional, behavioural, and social - all of which are interrelated.
The remainder of this paper discusses the possible consequences of child abuse and neglect identified in the research literature.
The research reviewed included high-quality systematic reviews and primary studies with large representative samples in English-speaking countries. Adverse consequences are broadly linked to all abuse types; however, where appropriate, associations are made between specific types of maltreatment and negative outcomes.
Patterns of child-caregiver attachment are extremely important for a child's early emotional and social development. Reviews of the literature have reported that child maltreatment is associated with problematic peer relationships in childhood and adolescence Meadows et al. Further to this, difficulties in peer relations may be a precursor to difficulties in romantic relations Trickett et al. Abuse and neglect in the early years of life can seriously affect the developmental capacities of infants, especially in the critical areas of speech and language Wolfe, Prospective research studies have consistently shown that maltreated children have lower educational achievement than other groups of children Gilbert et al.
However, the authors acknowledged that studies associating child abuse and neglect with learning problems are problematic in that most studies do not know the intellectual status of children before maltreatment. A more recent longitudinal study of maltreated children in the United States found that chronicity of maltreatment affected maths scores negatively and type of maltreatment affected reading scores negatively but higher intelligence and daily living skills e.
Extensive research has identified a strong relationship between child maltreatment and a range of mental health problems, with post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD often reported Gilbert et al. Recent research suggests that diagnosing children with PTSD does not capture the full developmental effects of chronic child abuse and neglect and as noted previously, many researchers now prefer the term "complex trauma" Cook et al.
For example, the authors cited a longitudinal study by Brown and colleagues which found that children and adolescents who reported a history of abuse or neglect were three times more likely to exhibit a depressive disorder than non-maltreated children. Eating disorders, including anorexia and binge-purge behaviour bulimia , may also be associated with child abuse and neglect Brewerton, Sexual abuse has been widely linked to eating disorders in children and adolescents; however, experiencing other maltreatment types or multiple forms of abuse and neglect have also been shown to increase the risk of developing an eating disorder Brewerton, Similarly, in a systematic review of the literature, Miller and colleagues found that although all forms of maltreatment were associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, child sexual abuse and emotional abuse might be more important than physical abuse or neglect.
Supporting this, Brodksy and Stanley found that risks of repeated suicide attempts were eight times greater for youths with a sexual abuse history. It is less clear if particular types of maltreatment are more closely linked to substance misuse and what factors, if any, may mediate the relationship although physical abuse and combinations of abuse do appear to be associated with increased substance abuse Trickett et al.
In surveying public school students in Grades 6, 9 and 12 in the United States, Harrison and colleagues found that experiences of physical or sexual abuse increased the likelihood of students using alcohol, marijuana and other drugs. Researchers have found that child abuse and neglect is associated with behaviour problems in childhood and adolescence Ethier et al.
The earlier children are maltreated the more likely they are to develop behaviour problems in adolescence Frederico et al. Researchers have often associated maltreatment with internalising behaviours being withdrawn, sad, isolated and depressed and externalising behaviours being aggressive or hyperactive throughout childhood Mills, Longitudinal studies have shown that exposure to a single type of maltreatment as well as multiple types is related to increased internalising and externalising behaviours in childhood and adolescence Moylan et al. In addition to feeling pain and suffering themselves, children exposed to abuse and neglect are at increased risk of inflicting pain on others and developing aggressive and violent behaviours in adolescence Gilbert et al.
Research suggests that physical abuse and exposure to family violence are the most consistent predictors of youth violence Gilbert et al. In a meta-analysis by Gilbert and colleagues, both prospective and retrospective studies indicated strong associations between child abuse and neglect and criminal behaviour. Eighty three per cent of children in the Take Two program in Victoria demonstrated repeated and severe violence towards others Frederico et al.
Research investigating the effect child abuse and neglect has on overall physical health has largely focused on outcomes in adulthood. Flaherty et al. A further study by Hussey, Chang, and Kotch found that all types of abuse and neglect were associated with 8 of 10 major adolescent health risks. A common form of abuse affecting the health of babies is shaken baby syndrome.
Health problems resulting from shaken baby syndrome may include brain damage, spinal cord injuries, hearing loss, speech difficulties and even death Child Welfare Information Gateway, Research has consistently linked teenage pregnancy with experiences of sexual abuse Hillis et al. Meta-analyses of 21 studies of child sexual abuse reported that this form of abuse more than doubled the risk of adolescent pregnancy i. Further to this, a study by Fergusson and colleagues found that young women 18 years of age exposed to child sexual abuse had significantly higher rates of teenage pregnancy, increased rates of sexually transmitted diseases, and higher rates of multiple sexual partnerships and appeared to be more vulnerable to further sexual assault and rape.
Young people who are removed from the care of their parents because of abuse or neglect may also face homelessness and unemployment soon after leaving out-of-home care e. A lack of social support networks and poor academic achievement often contribute to the difficulties young people face in finding adequate housing and employment after care. The most tragic and extreme consequence of child abuse and neglect is abuse that results in death.
This is considered an underestimation as a large number of deaths caused by abuse and neglect go unreported due to being misattributed to other causes such as falls or insufficient investigations and a failure to run post-mortem examinations Gilbert et al. In Australia, all deaths are registered at a state level by the Registrar for Births, Deaths and Marriages.
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Statistics are compiled and reported by the ABS, and include assault. For further information on child deaths from maltreatment by state in Australia, see Child Deaths from Abuse and Neglect. Research investigating the effects of child abuse and neglect is extensive. Additionally, many research studies are unable to control for other environmental and social factors, which makes it difficult to rule out influences such as socio-economic disadvantage, disability and social isolation when associating maltreatment with negative consequences for children and young people.
Other research limitations include problems with definitions for example, type or severity of abuse , recruiting a representative sample, and obtaining accurate recollections of past events by participants Gilbert et al. In spite of the various limitations, research in the area consistently identifies strong links between child abuse and neglect and adverse consequences for children and adolescents. Child abuse and neglect may lead to a wide range of adverse consequences for children and adolescents.
Research suggests that specific types of abuse are more closely related to some adverse outcomes than others, for example, the links between physical abuse and violent or aggressive behaviour. However, experiencing chronic and multiple forms of abuse increase the risk of more damaging and severe consequences for children and young people.
Copyright information. The issue of children and young people demonstrating problematic sexual behaviours — or acting abusively to other young people who may be younger,. We compiled recent resources and short articles that explore the intersection between the child protection and youth justice systems in Australia.
This paper presents a review of available literature on problem sexual behaviours and sexually abusive behaviours exhibited in young people. CFCA offers a free research and information helpdesk for child, family and community welfare practitioners, service providers, researchers and policy makers through the CFCA News. Google Tag Manager. Effects of child abuse and neglect for children and adolescents Effects of child abuse and neglect for children and adolescents CFCA Resource Sheet— January If you believe a child is in immediate danger call Police on Types of abuse and neglect Child abuse and neglect refers to any behaviour by parents, caregivers, other adults or older adolescents that is outside the norms of conduct and entails a substantial risk of causing physical or emotional harm to a child or young person.
Factors affecting the consequences of child abuse and neglect Not all children exposed to similar experiences of abuse and neglect are affected in the same way.
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They have noted several key messages: Brains develop over time and through interaction with the environment. Chronic, toxic stress of the sort experienced by maltreated children, and particularly in the absence of consistent, supportive and interactive relationships with adult caregivers, has been found to have an especially deleterious effect on young children's growing brains NSCDC, ; Exposure to complex and chronic trauma can result in persistent psychological problems.
The interaction between genes and environment also plays a role in how the brain develops, particularly during the early developmental period NSCDC, ; Consequences of child abuse and neglect Child abuse and neglect can affect all domains of development - physical, psychological, emotional, behavioural, and social - all of which are interrelated. Mental health problems Extensive research has identified a strong relationship between child maltreatment and a range of mental health problems, with post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD often reported Gilbert et al.
Behavioural problems Researchers have found that child abuse and neglect is associated with behaviour problems in childhood and adolescence Ethier et al. Aggression, violence and criminal activity In addition to feeling pain and suffering themselves, children exposed to abuse and neglect are at increased risk of inflicting pain on others and developing aggressive and violent behaviours in adolescence Gilbert et al.
Physical health problems Research investigating the effect child abuse and neglect has on overall physical health has largely focused on outcomes in adulthood. Fatal abuse The most tragic and extreme consequence of child abuse and neglect is abuse that results in death. Research limitations Research investigating the effects of child abuse and neglect is extensive. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect may lead to a wide range of adverse consequences for children and adolescents. References Australian Bureau of Statistics. Census of population and housing: Estimating homelessness.
Australia Cat. Canberra: ABS.itlauto.com/wp-includes/current/891-micro-espion-gsm.php
Child Abuse Essay
HOU Canberra: AIHW. Bacon, H. Attachment theory and child abuse: An overview of the literature for practitioners. Child Abuse Review , 10 6 , Baer, J.
Essays on Child Abuse
Child maltreatment and insecure attachment: A meta-analysis. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology , 24 3 , Brewerton, T. Eating Disorders , 15 4 , Brodsky, B. Adverse childhood experiences and suicidal behavior.